Los Tainos Arawacos tradicionalistas De Boriken

GUAYTIAO DE GUATU MA CU DEL CONCILIO TAINO

Ingles primero/Espanol y referencias abajo.....

In 2000 National Science Foundation research, Juan Carlos Martinez Cruzado, Professor of Genetics at the University of Puerto
Rico-Mayaguez, found that 61 percent of all Puerto Ricans carry
Amerindian mitochondrial DNA from their maternal lines.

While we should be careful to remember that tests like these *DO NOT* have the ability to identify *ALL* people of Taino ancestry, it is an important test because it demonstrates the high percentage of Taino blood that still runs in the veins of our people!!

Today (this week!) more people are discovering this kind of test is available.  Can anyone share places where people on the mainland can have this test done?


Ahora con el espa~nol  (si tiene correcciones de mi espa~nol, agradesco ;)

En 2000, investigacion NSF de Juan Carlos Martinez Cruzado, Professor de Genetics en el Universidad de Puerto
Rico-Mayaguez, encontro' que 61% de los Puertorrique~nos tiene aDN Taino!

Tenemos que recordar que pruebas como esto no tiene abilidad en identificar TODO la gente que tiene sagre Taino, pero es una prueba importante porque desmonstra la gran cantidad de gente que hoy dia todavia tiene sangre Taino.

Esta semana, hay gente nuevo descubriendo que esta prueba existe.  Sabes donde gente puede sacar esta prueba en la tierra firme?


Referencias:
---------------------------

An Interview On the Taino DNA testing in Puerto Rico Of Juan Carlos...
Delware Review of Latin American Studies, "Profiles", Vol. 1,
no. 2, 15 August 2000.

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/41/308.html

The Use of Mitochondrial DNA to Discover Pre-Columbian Migrations t... , Dr. Juan Carlos Martinez Cruzado, KACIKE: The Journal of
Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology [On-line Journal],
Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed., 2002.

http://www.kacike.org/MartinezEnglish.html


-- Tekina-eirú

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Tekina-eiru,
Thanks for sharing these links-- more people need to know about their Taino ancestry. There are a number of places where you can get their dna tested. It's how I found out my mtDNA was haplogroup C1, Amerindian, which shows I descend from a female Taino ancestor. As carriers of the Y-DNA & mtDNA [XY] males can test both their male lineage [Y-DNA] and female lineage [mtDNA]. During colonization, many women were taken as concubines or as partners or violated by the Spanish, which is a reason why the Amerindian DNA results for Puerto Ricans are more often matrilineal. Often people trace their paternal lineage, but can miss out on the other half of their story.

Companies that test DNA have different prices according to the number of sites tested. There are test descriptions and additional information (like videos) that explain the tests. The larger the sequence, the higher the price. With larger sequence, once can make more matches to other persons, and increase the chance of finding others who match your results. Saliva is used for them, so it's painless.
Prices start at about $150 and up, some have sales periodically. For Ancestry, you have to have a membership already.

FamilyTree DNA, http://www.familytreedna.com/products.aspx
Ancestry.com, http://dna.ancestry.com/welcome.aspx
GeneTree http://www.genetree.com

I did do a test with Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation for free, and paid a fee to GeneTree to unlock the results (I think its about $49 now).
http://www.smgf.org/
on getting the results:
http://www.smgf.org/mailing_list.jspx?id=18
but you will have to contact them to find out what the situation is at present.
This is not quick at all, it took over a year and a half to get the results. You are donating your results to the foundation.

Tekina-eiru,
Gracias por compartir estos conexiones-- mas gente necesitan a conocer sus ancestros Taino. Hay algunos sitios adonde uno puede hacer sus prueba de dna. Esto fue la manera que aprendi que mi mtDNA era haplogroup C1, Amerindio, que ensena que tengo descendencia de una ancestra Taina. Como varones cargan Y-DNA y mtDNA [XY], ellos pueden hacer pruebas de sus lineas paternales [Y-DNA] y maternales [mtDNA]. Durante la colonización de Borinquen, muchas mujeres fueron tomado como concubinas, esposa o fueron violadas por los Españoles, y es la razón que los resulto de DNA Amerindia resultan en la línea matrilineal. Muchas veces gente buscan su descendencia paternal, pero así pueden perder la mitad de su historia.

Compañías que prueban el DNA tienen diferente precios según como de amplio es la búsqueda. Ofrecen explicaciones del proceso (y video) y mas información sobre los pruebas. El mas amplio la prueba, mas alto son los precios. Con estos pruebas, puede buscar a otros que tienen el mismo resulto, y tiene mas probabilidad de hacer pareja. Como las pruebas DNA usan saliva, asi no duele hacerlo.

Precios empiezan por $150 y mas, pero algunos compañías tienen ventas en vez en cuando. Para Ancestro, necesitas ser miembro.

FamilyTree DNA, http://www.familytreedna.com/products.aspx
Ancestry.com,
http://dna.ancestry.com/welcome.aspx
GeneTree
http://www.genetree.com
Hice una prueba con Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation gratis, y pague un cuota a GeneTree para acceso a los resulto (creo que cuesta $49.50 ahora)
SMGF:
http://www.smgf.org/
para como obtener acceso al resulto:
http://www.smgf.org/mailing_list.jspx?id=18
Pero tendra de contactarlos para descubrir que es la situacion ahora. Esta ruta no es rapido como los otros, como tomo un ano y medio para obtener el resulto. Estas donando su DNA y el resulto al Fundación.

Espero que sea util,
Ellen
Gracias Ellen!

It's wonderful to have an expert in geneology on our forum!
Que bendicion que tenemos una experta en geneology en nuestro forum!

Question: does that mean that woman can only test their mother's line?
Pregunta: entonces, mujeres solamente puede tener prueba matrilineal?

I found this addition resource for dna testing. Is this also a good one?
Encontre' este recourso diferente, puede recomendarlo tambien?

https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com

Thanks for this info. We are receiving questions weekly on test resources!
Gracias por la informacion. Estamos recibiendo cartas semanal preguntando!

-- Tekina-eirú
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/faqs_...
What tests do you perform?
We will be performing ONE OF two tests for each public participant. Y-DNA test (12 Short Tandem Repeat markers): This test helps us to identify deep ancestral migratory origins on the direct paternal line. Only males can have their Y_DNA analyzed, since females do not inherit a Y chromosome from their fathers. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (Extended HVS-1, Regions 16,023-16,569 with a backbone panel of defined coding region SNPs): This tests the mtDNA of females to help identify the deep ancestral migratory origins on their direct maternal line. Both females and males can have their mtDNA analyzed since females and males both inherit mtDNA from their mothers. Therefore, males also have the option of selecting mtDNA. All participants will be able to access their results anonymously on the participant portion of the Genographic Web site.

These tests are much briefer than the others offered by other companies.
Asi, son mas breve que los que ofrecen las otras companias.

--Ellen
You're very welcome-
Soy agradecida que puedo contribuir al foro.

Basically, women [XX] inherit the X chromosome from the female line, and men [XY] have both, one from the mother [X] and the other from the father [X]
Basicamente, mujeres [XX] tienen el cromosomo X como herencia de la linea maternal, y hombres [XY] tienen los dos, uno del madre [X] y el otro del padre [Y].

The National Geographic test has a different focus-- its on migration and so the test is shorter than what other companies offer, and Family Tree DNA is processing their samples. So, it's not as concerned with genealogy.

las pruebas del National Geographic tenien un foco diferente-- en migracion, asi los resultos son mas breve que lo que otros companias ofrecen. Family Tree DNA estan procesando las muestras. Asi no estan tan concentrado en genealogia.
Nuevo info para todos interesada. Este tema es la pregunta mas popular que recibo.
Gracias Ellen!

-------- Original Message --------
From: Ellen Fernandez-Sacco
Sent: Tue Nov 29 18:43:02 EST 2011
To: "Dr. Ana Maria Tekina-eiru Maynard"
Subject: Fwd: Top Shared Genealogy News [SMGF - Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation]

Tekina-eiru,
This is the organization I was telling you about, where you can 'donate' your dna and get a key for the results from GeneTree abt $50. It takes a long time though.

Ellen Sacco

Begin forwarded message:

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> Date: November 29, 2011 4:06:21 AM PST
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> Bi-Weekly Brief | Tuesday, November 29
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> Tell Me What’s in My Genome!
> Right now, for about the same price as a conventional medical test that reveals just a handful of genes, you could learn the entire contents of your genome. Sure, it’s a "research" scan, which means it will contain mistakes, and your insurance won’t cover the $4,000-$5,000 bill…
> ★ 66 via Slate
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> Autosomal DNA adds to genealogy science kit
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> If you've ever wanted to track down your ancestral line, there's no better time than now. There's a large resource of family trees and ancestral history online and even more genealogy databases. Recently, a social-networking genealogy Website, called GeneTree asked KHQA to participate in a DNA study…
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<-------------------------------------->
Ellen Fernandez-Sacco, Ph.D.
Oakland, CA

Chairperson & co-moderator, Sociedad Ancestros Mocanos
Visit us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_187895491257325

Here's a question that came in.  I wanted to share the question and answer with all who would benefit. Thank you Ellen Fernandez-Sacco.

Someone emailed with this question: He had his mtDNA tested by the National Geographic project and has his sequence that traces him (haplogroup) to the original Eve. While fascinating, what he really wants to know about is his Taino roots in Puerto Rico. They sent him his long mtDNA sequence. Is there any way he can find out more with this sequence he already has from some of the other sources that you know. -- Tekina-eiru


He needs to register for some other services to find matches to other people with the same pattern in their mtDNA.
The National Geographic project is really more about migration, not specific locations to match individuals. It may also turn out that he will need to retest for a larger sequence of markers in order to find a match.
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/faqs_results.html
from their site:
"Alternatively, you can transfer your first set of results via the Genographic website results page to Family Tree DNA, Genographic's genetic-testing partner. You can then purchase an additional test to be performed on the sample that you already submitted. Please note that the cost of a mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome upgrade test is $89. Also, if you choose to have the testing done via Family Tree DNA, you will need to waive anonymity."
from the family tree site:

http://www.familytreedna.com/faq/answers.aspx?id=3
How do I upload my Family Tree DNA results to the National Geographic Genographic project? faq id: 297

Once you have mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) results, you may donate them to the Genographic Project. The cost is $15 US. Online payment is by credit card. To donate:

Login to your myFTDNA account. (https://www.familytreedna.com/login.aspx)
Go to the Genographic Project page.
Check the I agree box to consent.
Enter payment information.
Click to complete the transfer.
You may also pay by check. Mail to our office your check and request to donate. Once we transfer your results, we will send you an e-mail with your GPID (Genographic ID).

Note: If you have results for both Y-DNA and mtDNA tests, only one charge will apply. Donate one test to the Genographic Project. Then, please use our feedback form to contact customer service. Include your kit number. We will submit the second test for FREE.


Here are some other questions and answers that might be helpful from:

https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/faqs_...



NOTE: We have added simplified HTML versions of the results pages to the Web site. If you do not have Macromedia Flash installed on your computer, then the HTML version of your results should load automatically. Otherwise you can click "View Non-Flash Report" at the top of your results page.
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17. What if my results show an entirely different location, country, or place than what I know to be true about my early ancestors?

Your results reveal your deep ancestry along a single line of direct descent (paternal or maternal) and show the migration paths your ancestors followed thousands of years ago. The migratory route is one part of your history and does not preclude what you already know to be true about your more recent genealogical past. It has no bearing on your cultural identity, ethnic heritage, or nationality of the more recent historical past. Your individual results may confirm your expectations of what you believe your deep ancestry to be, or you may be surprised to learn a new story about your genetic background. You will not receive a percentage breakdown of your genetic background by ethnicity, race, or geographic origin. Nor will you receive confirmation of an association with a particular tribe or indigenous group. This is not a genealogy study. You will not learn about your great-grandparents or other recent relatives, and your DNA trail will not necessarily lead to your present-day location. Rather, your results will reveal the anthropological story of your direct maternal or paternal ancestors<97>where they lived and how they migrated around the world many thousands of years ago.
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18. Can I publish my results on a blog, Web site, or trade magazine? If I do, how do I cite it?

We understand that participants are often eager to share their Genographic results and map. Generally, it is fine to do so in a noncommercial publication (example: personal Web site; small-press, noncommercial family history book, etc). Please contact us at genographic@ngs.org for approval and instructions on the proper attribution.
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19. Is the Genographic Project going to publish its results in book form?

All results will be published into the public domain following scientific peer review. At present, Spencer Wells has two books that document his past and more current research. They are Journey of Man and Deep Ancestry. The results of the Genographic Project may be presented on television, radio, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and other media including books.
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20. What if I make a mistake and ruin a component of the kit?

If you make a mistake and ruin a component of the kit, simply email us at genographic@ngs.org and explain what happened.
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21. What is the Cambridge Reference Series?

Your sequence is compared against the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), which is the standard mitochondrial sequence initially determined by researchers at Cambridge, England. The differences between your DNA and the CRS are highlighted, and these data allow researchers to reconstruct the migratory paths of your genetic lineage.
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22. What is a subclade?

In genetics, subclade is a term used to describe a subgroup of a subgenus or haplogroup. It is commonly used today in describing genealogical DNA tests of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups.
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23. What is PCR, or polymerase chain reaction?

PCR is a procedure that produces multiple copies of a short segment of DNA through cycles of: 1) denaturation (heat-induced separation of double-stranded DNA into single strands); 2) annealing (binding of specific primers on either end of the target segment); and 3) elongation (extension of the primer sequences over the target segment with DNA polymerase). The amplified product, doubled each cycle for 30 or more cycles, can then be subjected to further testing.
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24. How do I print all my personalized documents?

If you are having problems with printing results, try these steps below.

A programming aspect requires that you print each page of the report individually. The printer pop-up box will remain up after printing the first page. Press print again rather than cancel. The entire document will print out. Follow these directions to print "Your Ancestral History," "Genetic History," and "Genetic Certificate." Once you have arrived at your results page, you can print the "Your Ancestral History," "Genetic History," and/or "Genetic Certificate" documents by following the prompts on the right side of the screen, an annotated version of which appear here:

STEP 1: SELECT YOUR DOCUMENTS.
You can select/unselect which documents to print by moving your cursor over the small yellow box to the left of each one and clicking. A checkmark in the yellow box indicates that you want that document to print.  An empty yellow box indicates that you do not wish to print that particular document.

STEP 2: ADD YOUR NAME (OPTIONAL)
You can personalize your documents by entering your name.

STEP 3: PRINT YOUR DOCUMENTS
Move your cursor to the yellow "PRINT YOUR DOCUMENTS" button and double-click. A dialog box will appear on the lower right side of the screen which reads, "Please note: You may need to click 'print' in your print window pop-up more than once in order to print out all of your documents." There is a prompt at the bottom of that dialog box that reads, "CONTINUE." Double-click on CONTINUE.

Next, move your cursor to the "Print" button when the print dialogue box appears. The print dialogue box may begin to disappear briefly but then reappear. If that happens, click on the "Print" button again and again until the dialogue box disappears. (A programming aspect requires that you print each page of each document individually. By clicking until the dialogue box disappears, you are instructing the computer to print all the pages.)

Some things to check to be sure your computer is able to print:

    You must have Macromedia Flash Plug-in installed.
    Enable Plug-ins.
    Enable Java.
    Allow Cookies.
    Your security may be too high. Try turning off your Firewall.
    Restart your computer after making changes.

If, after taking all the actions stipulated above, you are still experiencing trouble when viewing or printing your results, then simply go to the black bar immediately above the map and click on "View Non-Flash Report." This version can be easier to print than the Flash version.

In the meantime, it may be possible to download or print out your results from a different computer (i.e. work or library) though this option will not solve the problem long-term, as it is important that you are able to access results throughout the course of the 5-year project.

Thank you once again for participating in the Genographic Project and for your continued patience.
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25. What if there is blood on my swab?

Drawing a small amount of blood on the swab tip should not be a problem, as the laboratory will likely still have sufficient genetic material to analyze and report results to you. In the unlikely event, however, that the lab is unable to isolate your DNA successfully from the cheek swabs, you will see an error message that prompts you to contact us. We will mail you directly a new replacement mini-kit at no cost so that you can perform the swab process again and resubmit your samples.
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26. Can I test both my paternal and maternal lineage?

Males possess both a Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA, so they may choose to test either maternal lineage or paternal lineage by marking their consent form accordingly. Please note: Only one test per Genographic Participation Kit is performed.

If you are a male and would like to test both your Y chromosome and your mitochondrial DNA, you may purchase a second Genographic Participation Kit and mark the consent form for the lineage that you have not yet tested. Alternatively, you can transfer your first set of results via the Genographic website results page to Family Tree DNA, Genographic's genetic-testing partner. You can then purchase an additional test to be performed on the sample that you already submitted. Please note that the cost of a mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome upgrade test is $89. Also, if you choose to have the testing done via Family Tree DNA, you will need to waive anonymity.

Females do not possess a Y chromosome, and therefore may only have the mitochondrial DNA test performed. However, if you are a female and would like to learn about your paternal lineage, then a male relative<97>such as a father, a brother, or a paternal blood relative of your father's, such as his brother<97>can test his Y-chromosome DNA. The results will reveal a female's paternal lineage.
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27. What part of my DNA does the Genographic Project test?

The Genographic Project tests specific regions on the mitochondrial DNA and on the Y chromosome.

Mitochondrial DNA: This test for your maternal lineage yields sequence data for Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1: 16001 to 16569) and compares your results to the Cambridge Reference Sequence. Results are analyzed to determine your Haplogroup assignment.

Y chromosome (male samples only): This 12-marker test for your paternal lineage yields data for the following 12 STRs:
DYS393  DYS439  DYS388  DYS385a
DYS19   DYS389-1        DYS390  DYS385b
DYS391  DYS389-2        DYS426  DYS392


Additional testing such as a SNP test may be run on a Y chromosome sample if analysis of the 12 STR values does not conclusively indicate a Haplogroup assignment.

Your results page will report what changes from the mitochondrial  Cambridge Reference Sequence. you have, or the values for your Y chromosome makers, depending on what test you had elected to perform on your sample.
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1. Why has my Y chromosome haplogroup changed?

Recenty, researchers led by Dr. Hammer, Family Tree DNA's Chief Scientist, published
the newly updated Y chromosome haplogroup tree in Genome Research. This paper
recommends a number of changes in haplogroup nomenclature, which may have affected
your haplogroup name. Your DNA results have not changed. You will notice that the
mutation that defines your haplogroup remains the same. For example, under the old
tree, marker P37.2 defined Haplogroup I1b. Under the new tree, marker P37.2 defines
Haplogroup I2a. View the new tree as a PDF document.
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2. How are the DNA samples processed?

Indigenous and traditional participants' samples are processed in one of the
project's ten regional centers. Samples may be buccal, saliva, or blood samples,
depending on preference of the participants. Extracted DNA is analyzed at the
centers using a standardized set of scientific protocols. All data is uploaded to
the central database. Public participant cheek-swab samples are processed at the
Arizona Research Labs at the University of Arizona via Family Tree DNA, the leading
genetic genealogy company that has been selected to perform the public participant
testing for the project.
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3. What happens once I order a Genographic Project Public Participation Kit?

After you have placed your order, a participation kit will be mailed to you. The kit
includes two cheek scrapers and two vials as well as a self-addressed envelope to
return your sample. Instructions and other important and exciting information and
materials on the project are also included in the kit. Once you return your genetic
sample, it will be processed at the Arizona Research Labs at the University of
Arizona, via Family Tree DNA, the leading genetic genealogy company that has been
selected to perform the public participant testing for the project. From the time we
receive your sample in the lab it will take approximately eight weeks to test your
DNA, analyze the specimens, and upload the results to the Genographic Web site. Make
sure to check often on the status of your results using your Genographic Participant
ID number. You will also have the opportunity to include your anonymous genetic
results in the overall Genographic database should you wish to do so.
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4. How long will it take for me to get my results?

From the time we receive your sample in the lab it will take approximately six to
eight weeks to test your DNA, analyze the specimens, and upload the results to the
Genographic Web site.
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5. What do you do with the results of the tests?

Public participant results will be posted on our protected Web site, where you will
be able to access them privately and anonymously. Should you consent, your anonymous
results will also be included in the Genographic database and contribute to the
overall project sample size.
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6. Can this DNA test serve as a paternity test?

Our specific purpose is to test for deep ancestry and NOT for paternity, medical, or
criminal purposes. While information about deep ancestry can be used to make
inferences about paternity in some cases, it cannot be used to establish paternity.
The Genographic Project's primary test attempts to determine what migratory routes
your deep ancestors followed and to which branch of the phylogenetic tree you
belong, and many people around the world will have the same deep ancestry.
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7. Will I have the right to remove my genetic profile from the database at some
later time?

Yes. If you decide that you want your data deleted from the database, you will have
the opportunity to do so by sending an email to genographic@ngs.org.
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8. Will you be able to tell me if I carry a problematic gene or if I am at risk of
health problems?

No. We will not be able to determine if you are carrying any genetic markers
associated with a disease because we are only testing your DNA to look at markers
associated with migratory history.
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9. Will the Genographic Project conduct health-related analysis on my DNA sample or
provide the sample to my physician?

No. The Genographic Project will not conduct any health-related tests on the DNA
samples provided by public participants. The DNA analysis conducted by National
Geographic is intended to determine what migratory routes your deep ancestors
followed and to which branch of the human family tree you belong and in no way
relates to analyzing your health, health status, or any inherited health conditions.
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10. What tests do you perform?

We will be performing ONE OF two tests for each public participant. Y-DNA test (12
Short Tandem Repeat markers): This test helps us to identify deep ancestral
migratory origins on the direct paternal line. Only males can have their Y_DNA
analyzed, since females do not inherit a Y chromosome from their fathers.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (Extended HVS-1, Regions 16,023-16,569 with a backbone
panel of defined coding region SNPs): This tests the mtDNA of females to help
identify the deep ancestral migratory origins on their direct maternal line. Both
females and males can have their mtDNA analyzed since females and males both inherit
mtDNA from their mothers. Therefore, males also have the option of selecting mtDNA.
All participants will be able to access their results anonymously on the participant
portion of the Genographic Web site.
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11. Are there any risks associated with the test?

We do not know of any risk to you from taking the cheek-scraper sample or having
your DNA sample analyzed to determine the migratory history of your deep ancestors.
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12. What will you do with the public participation specimens?

We will keep your sample only for the Genographic Project. Your sample will not be
used for any other purpose without your written permission. The genetic tests we
will perform are designed only to research early human origins and movements. The
tests do not tell us anything about your health, or about any health problems you
(or your family) may have. This is an anthropological study only. Unless you
instruct us otherwise, your cells will be destroyed at the conclusion of the
project.
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13. How long will you keep the public participation samples?

We will discard your sample when the Genographic Project is finished, unless you
have requested otherwise. We are not a gene or tissue bank, so we do not have to
keep your genetic material for any particular length of time. During the project,
you will have the opportunity to contact Family Tree DNA, the company licensed to
perform testing for Genographic Project participants, to request follow-up testing
if you choose. Unless you do so before the conclusion of our project, your cells
will be destroyed and will not be available for follow-up testing. We do not return
samples to the people from whom we receive them.
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14. Will Genographic share my test results with others?

No. Genographic Project public participant samples are assigned a randomly
generated, nonsequential Genographic Project ID (GPID) number for processing and
analysis. Public participants can only access their results via the protected
participant area of the Genographic Web site using his or her GPID number.

The entire results of the project may be presented on television, radio, the
Internet, newspapers, magazines, and other media. Your genetic data will be included
only if you agree to have your data included as part of our aggregate presentation
of trends and patterns. If you agree to have your anonymous data included in the
project's aggregate database, we will not disclose any information that reveals your
identity. We do not have the ability to link your personally identifiable
information with your genetic data.
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15. How will collected data be stored over the short and long run?

The project developed a customized DNA Analysis Repository (DAR), a central database
solution that manages electronic DNA data for the Genographic Project. Housed at
National Geographic headquarters in Washington, D.C., the DAR leverages IBM
information management software to manage DNA data collected from Genographic
Project investigators worldwide. Data from the system is stored on a second IBM
storage system.

In collaboration with National Geographic, IBM also helped develop a
field-collection solution, which comprises a remote system used by Genographic
Project scientists worldwide to record phenotypic data regarding the physical DNA
samples gathered in the field. Scientists access the field-collection system through
ThinkPad notebook computers equipped with a customized biometric fingerprint
security application.

The information technology infrastructure provides secure transmission, storage and
management of hundreds of thousands of DNA records and effective communication with
the general public through the Web infrastructure.
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16. What technical tips can I try if I have trouble accessing the Genographic Web
site?

1. Install Macromedia Flash Plug-in. (See note below re: Non-Flash Report)
2. Set your browser to enable plug-ins.
3. Set your browser to enable Javascript.
4. Set your browser to allow cookies.
5. Your security may be too high. Try turning off your firewall. (For Windows users,
change firewall settings in your control panel.)
6. You may have what we refer to as a "tired" browser. Under Internet Options or
Preferences, clear your cache and delete all temporary Internet files and cookies,
etc. (In doing so, you may delete passwords and other information that your computer
had been remembering for you.) This should refresh your browser.
7. Do not use an old saved bookmark or "Favorites" link to access the Genographic
site. Use this link-http://www.nationalgeographic.com/genographic-and you will be
directed to the correct Web page.
8. Restart your computer after making changes.

NOTE: We have added simplified HTML versions of the results pages to the Web site.
If you do not have Macromedia Flash installed on your computer, then the HTML
version of your results should load automatically. Otherwise you can click "View
Non-Flash Report" at the top of your results page.
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17. What if my results show an entirely different location, country, or place than
what I know to be true about my early ancestors?

Your results reveal your deep ancestry along a single line of direct descent
(paternal or maternal) and show the migration paths your ancestors followed
thousands of years ago. The migratory route is one part of your history and does not
preclude what you already know to be true about your more recent genealogical past.
It has no bearing on your cultural identity, ethnic heritage, or nationality of the
more recent historical past. Your individual results may confirm your expectations
of what you believe your deep ancestry to be, or you may be surprised to learn a new
story about your genetic background. You will not receive a percentage breakdown of
your genetic background by ethnicity, race, or geographic origin. Nor will you
receive confirmation of an association with a particular tribe or indigenous group.
This is not a genealogy study. You will not learn about your great-grandparents or
other recent relatives, and your DNA trail will not necessarily lead to your
present-day location. Rather, your results will reveal the anthropological story of
your direct maternal or paternal ancestors<97>where they lived and how they migrated
around the world many thousands of years ago.
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18. Can I publish my results on a blog, Web site, or trade magazine? If I do, how do
I cite it?

We understand that participants are often eager to share their Genographic results
and map. Generally, it is fine to do so in a noncommercial publication (example:
personal Web site; small-press, noncommercial family history book, etc). Please
contact us at genographic@ngs.org for approval and instructions on the proper
attribution.
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19. Is the Genographic Project going to publish its results in book form?

All results will be published into the public domain following scientific peer
review. At present, Spencer Wells has two books that document his past and more
current research. They are Journey of Man and Deep Ancestry. The results of the
Genographic Project may be presented on television, radio, the Internet, newspapers,
magazines, and other media including books.
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20. What if I make a mistake and ruin a component of the kit?

If you make a mistake and ruin a component of the kit, simply email us at
genographic@ngs.org and explain what happened.
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21. What is the Cambridge Reference Series?

Your sequence is compared against the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), which is
the standard mitochondrial sequence initially determined by researchers at
Cambridge, England. The differences between your DNA and the CRS are highlighted,
and these data allow researchers to reconstruct the migratory paths of your genetic
lineage.
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22. What is a subclade?

In genetics, subclade is a term used to describe a subgroup of a subgenus or
haplogroup. It is commonly used today in describing genealogical DNA tests of human
mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups.
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23. What is PCR, or polymerase chain reaction?

PCR is a procedure that produces multiple copies of a short segment of DNA through
cycles of: 1) denaturation (heat-induced separation of double-stranded DNA into
single strands); 2) annealing (binding of specific primers on either end of the
target segment); and 3) elongation (extension of the primer sequences over the
target segment with DNA polymerase). The amplified product, doubled each cycle for
30 or more cycles, can then be subjected to further testing.
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24. How do I print all my personalized documents?

If you are having problems with printing results, try these steps below.

A programming aspect requires that you print each page of the report individually.
The printer pop-up box will remain up after printing the first page. Press print
again rather than cancel. The entire document will print out. Follow these
directions to print "Your Ancestral History," "Genetic History," and "Genetic
Certificate." Once you have arrived at your results page, you can print the "Your
Ancestral History," "Genetic History," and/or "Genetic Certificate" documents by
following the prompts on the right side of the screen, an annotated version of which
appear here:

STEP 1: SELECT YOUR DOCUMENTS.
You can select/unselect which documents to print by moving your cursor over the
small yellow box to the left of each one and clicking. A checkmark in the yellow box
indicates that you want that document to print.  An empty yellow box indicates that
you do not wish to print that particular document.

STEP 2: ADD YOUR NAME (OPTIONAL)
You can personalize your documents by entering your name.

STEP 3: PRINT YOUR DOCUMENTS
Move your cursor to the yellow "PRINT YOUR DOCUMENTS" button and double-click. A
dialog box will appear on the lower right side of the screen which reads, "Please
note: You may need to click 'print' in your print window pop-up more than once in
order to print out all of your documents." There is a prompt at the bottom of that
dialog box that reads, "CONTINUE." Double-click on CONTINUE.

Next, move your cursor to the "Print" button when the print dialogue box appears.
The print dialogue box may begin to disappear briefly but then reappear. If that
happens, click on the "Print" button again and again until the dialogue box
disappears. (A programming aspect requires that you print each page of each document
individually. By clicking until the dialogue box disappears, you are instructing the
computer to print all the pages.)

Some things to check to be sure your computer is able to print:

    You must have Macromedia Flash Plug-in installed.
    Enable Plug-ins.
    Enable Java.
    Allow Cookies.
    Your security may be too high. Try turning off your Firewall.
    Restart your computer after making changes.

If, after taking all the actions stipulated above, you are still experiencing
trouble when viewing or printing your results, then simply go to the black bar
immediately above the map and click on "View Non-Flash Report." This version can be
easier to print than the Flash version.

In the meantime, it may be possible to download or print out your results from a
different computer (i.e. work or library) though this option will not solve the
problem long-term, as it is important that you are able to access results throughout
the course of the 5-year project.

Thank you once again for participating in the Genographic Project and for your
continued patience.
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25. What if there is blood on my swab?

Drawing a small amount of blood on the swab tip should not be a problem, as the
laboratory will likely still have sufficient genetic material to analyze and report
results to you. In the unlikely event, however, that the lab is unable to isolate
your DNA successfully from the cheek swabs, you will see an error message that
prompts you to contact us. We will mail you directly a new replacement mini-kit at
no cost so that you can perform the swab process again and resubmit your samples.
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26. Can I test both my paternal and maternal lineage?

Males possess both a Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA, so they may choose to test
either maternal lineage or paternal lineage by marking their consent form
accordingly. Please note: Only one test per Genographic Participation Kit is
performed.

If you are a male and would like to test both your Y chromosome and your
mitochondrial DNA, you may purchase a second Genographic Participation Kit and mark
the consent form for the lineage that you have not yet tested. Alternatively, you
can transfer your first set of results via the Genographic website results page to
Family Tree DNA, Genographic's genetic-testing partner. You can then purchase an
additional test to be performed on the sample that you already submitted. Please
note that the cost of a mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome upgrade test is $89. Also,
if you choose to have the testing done via Family Tree DNA, you will need to waive
anonymity.

Females do not possess a Y chromosome, and therefore may only have the mitochondrial
DNA test performed. However, if you are a female and would like to learn about your
paternal lineage, then a male relative<97>such as a father, a brother, or a paternal
blood relative of your father's, such as his brother<97>can test his Y-chromosome
DNA. The results will reveal a female's paternal lineage.
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27. What part of my DNA does the Genographic Project test?

The Genographic Project tests specific regions on the mitochondrial DNA and on the Y
chromosome.

Mitochondrial DNA: This test for your maternal lineage yields sequence data for
Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1: 16001 to 16569) and compares your results to the
Cambridge Reference Sequence. Results are analyzed to determine your Haplogroup
assignment.

Y chromosome (male samples only): This 12-marker test for your paternal lineage
yields data for the following 12 STRs:
DYS393  DYS439  DYS388  DYS385a
DYS19   DYS389-1        DYS390  DYS385b
DYS391  DYS389-2        DYS426  DYS392


Additional testing such as a SNP test may be run on a Y chromosome sample if
analysis of the 12 STR values does not conclusively indicate a Haplogroup
assignment.

Your results page will report what changes from the mitochondrial  Cambridge
Reference Sequence. you have, or the values for your Y chromosome makers, depending
on what test you had elected to perform on your sample.



Hola, como puedo hacerme las pruebas en Puerto Rico, amiga espero estes muy bien,,,

.
Hola!  Pregunta a Balanani.  Quizas el Dr. Cruz Martinez esta haciendo la pruebas todavia y otras tienen interes, y ella puede organizar una hida a Mayaguez.  Jajom y abrazos!

-- Tekina-eirú

Gracias, asi lo hare, Nitu!

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